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A Contribution of ICAR National Fellow Project

दीमक से बचाव के लिए देशी तकनीकPopularising the Termitexpert web-portal

Traditional/morpho-taxonomy


Indian Termite (Insecta: Isoptera) Fauna 

Species of termites in India is updated to 261. The greatest contribution on Indian region termites was made by Roonwal and Chhotani (1989) and Chhotani (1997) in “Fauna of India and Adjacent Countries Isoptera (Termites)”.They recorded 337 species of termites belonging to seven families and 59 genera from the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). However, no comprehensive list exists for India till-date. Thus, an updated list is prepared that serve the most up-to-date taxonomic treatment of order Isoptera; along with molecular characterization of few termite species as available on date in Indian context. The updated list covers 7 families, one genera each under families Termopsidae, Hodotermitidae, Stylotermitidae, Indotermitidae; and 7 genera in Rhinotermitidae; 8 genera in Kalotermitidae. The largest family is Termitidae comprising 32 genera and 188 species. Only 14 termite species were characterised in molecular way, and hope, in future more number of termites will be added. Fortunately, no termite species from this list is neither under Threatened Species nor the Critically Endangered Species as per IUCN’s Red Data Book. 

Introduction
Insects are the most diverse of all animal groups, and the taxon insecta comprises of 30 orders, Isoptera being one that deals with termites. Scientist estimate 10% of the animal biomass of the world is termites (
http://www.centralexterminatingco.com/id76.html).
And over 3106 (living and fossil) species now documented in the Treaties on the Isoptera of the World(Krishna et al. 2013). In Indian subcontinent, it is expected that final number exceeds 350 species. However, for Indian sovereign no such checklist is cited anywhere by anyone. The purpose of this termite updated list is to assist the terminologists/entomologists in preparing accounts for groups for which they are experts. Hope this serves as a valuable/useful tool to consolidated Indian knowledge level, and at the same time reveals taxonomic areas needing further investigation. The exhaustive list enlists 261 termite species in total (Table 1). The list is appended with a short account on the genes sequenced for molecular characterization and identification in the Indian context. In essence, we assume molecular identification will supplement the morpho-taxonomy, even if not substituting the role of traditional termite taxonomy.
In recent years science has witnessed an inevitable evolution from print to electronic media in the production of taxonomic resources. This is fostered by a large number of initiatives like the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, http://www.gbif.org/), the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS, http://www.itis.usda.gov/), Species2000 (http://www.sp2000.org), and Universal Biological Indexer and Organizer (uBIO: http://www.ubio.org), to name a few. Even long-established resources like the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999; http://www.iczn.org/) are turning towards the World Wide Web, (e.g., with the Zoo Bank initiative: http://www.zoobank.org) notwithstanding. 

Materials and Methods
We carefully output information directly from the two volumes of “Fauna of India and Adjacent Countries Isoptera (Termites)”, and also based on our cumulative knowledge. Few termite species were collected under the National Fellow ICAR project (2011-2016), and inventory is prepared at Division of Entomology, IARI. Termite samples were preserved in 80% ethyl-alcohol and studied under stereoscopic binocular microscope. Termites were identified using external morphology of the soldier caste (Roonwal 1970a).The important characteristics used for identification were - shape and size of the head, labrum, mandibles, pronotum, postmentum and position of the tooth and antennal segments etc. Determination of species was based on the keys (Roonwal and Chhotani 1989, Chhotani 1997 and Thakur 1981).
Taxonomic Research in India

M L Roonwal (1908-1990) started the work on Indian termites in a systematic and detailed manner in 1950-1951 at Forest Entomology Branch, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. During 1951-80, termite research in India was at its peak at FRI, Dehradun, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata and Zoological Survey of India, Jodhpur. A large number of research papers and monographs were published describing the termite fauna at the regional level. Significant contributions were made by Ahmad (1958 & a), Bose (1975, 1980, 1984, 1992, 1999), Chhotani (1971, 1975, 1976, 1977& a, 1987, 1992), Chatterjee & Thakur (1963, 1964, a & b, 1965, 1966, a &b, 1967, 1968, 1969), Krishna (1965), Kumar (2010 & a, 2011), Kumar & Thakur (2010, a, 2011, a, 2012, 2013), Lahiri & Ghosh (1980), Lahiri et al. (1977), Mahapatro & Kumar (2013), Maiti (1977, 1979, 1983), Mathur & Sen-Sarma (1959, 1961), Mathur & Thapa (1962 & a), Parihar (1977), Prasad & Sen-Sarma(1959, 1960, 1966 &a ), Prasad et al. (1967, 1970),Rathore (1986, 1987 & a , 1989, 1994&a, 1995, 1996, 1998 &a, 1999, 2005), Rathore & Bhattacharya (2004 &a), Rathore & Mandal (2005, 2006), Roonwal (1962 &a, 1964, 1970, a &b, 1972, a&b,1974, 1975, a, b, c& d,1976, 1977, a &b, 1978, a &b, 1979& a,1982 &a), Roonwal & Bose (1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1969, 1970, 1978, 1988), Roonwal & Chhotani (1960 &a , 1962, 1965, 1966, 1971,1977, 1986, 1989), Roonwal & Sen-Sarma (1960, 1973), Roonwal & Verma (1976 & a, 1973, 1976, 1977& a,1991), Sen-Sarma (1965, 1966), Sen-Sarma& Thakur (1979, 1980), Sen-Sarma & Verma (1983), Thakur (1975, 1976, a, b & c, 1978 &a,1981 &a), Thakur and Chatterjee (1969, 1970, 1971, 1974), Thakur & Sen-Sarma (1973, 1979), Thakur (1984, 1987,1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994,  2007 & a, 2008, 2009 & a), Thakur & Rathore (1986), Thakur & Kumar (2012), Thakur, et al.  (2009, 2010, a, 2011), Verma (1969, 1980, 1983, 1984,a &b, 1985&a, 1989), Verma &Purohit (1996), Verma & Rathore (1995), Verma & Thakur (1976, 1978, 1979), etc. contributed to the termites research in  India. The greatest contribution on Indian region termites was made by Roonwal and Chhotani(1989) (Vol-I) and Chhotani(1997) (Vol-II) in the form of two volumes on Fauna of India and Adjacent Countries Isoptera (Termites)”reported 337 species of termites belonging to seven families and 59 genera from the Indian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka).
A monumental work (included the new taxa described till 2010 first half) on world termite fauna recently published by Krishna et al. (2013).But we are trying to provide the latest information on new and already described species only from India till March, 2014.
Termites from India were reported first time by Linnaeus (1758) himself in his Systema Naturae (10th ed.), then onwards many termites were added to the list from Indian region, swelled to 1773 species (by Snyder, 1949). Work on termites initiated systematically in FRI since 1950-51, many Indian stalwarts contributed significantly to termite taxonomy earning worldwide recognitions like Roonwal, Chottani, Bose, Maiti, Verma, Thakur etc. Notably now, Krishna Kumar’s encyclopaedic knowledge makes him the world authority and dean of Isoptera research (principal author of the magnum opus, Treatise on the Isoptera of the World). Such classics of taxonomy in Indian context are worth citing, as well worth encouraging for termite taxonomists. Our list is a small contribution in this line. So as on today only Indian termite fauna comprises 261 species fall under seven families and 51 genera (Table 1).Fortunately, no termite species from this list is neither under Threatened Species nor the Critically Endangered Species as per IUCN’s Red Data Book.

Supporting Literature 

Ahmad, M. (1958).Key to Indomalayan termites.(Part 1.). Biologia 4(1): 33-118.

Ahmad, M. (1958a). Key to Indomalayan termites. Biologia 4(2):119-198.

Bose, G. (1975). Two new species of Odontotermes (Isoptera: Termitidae) from Southern India. Oriental Insects 9(2): 157-164.

Bose, G. (1980). A further contribution to the study of termite fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.Records zoological Survey of India 77: 93-109.

Bose, G. (1984). Termite fauna of Southern India.Occasional Paper zoological Survey of India 49: 1- 270.

Bose, G. (1992). An unusual case of mound construction by the termite Odontotermes feae (Wasmann). Record of the Zoological Survey of India 92: 19-22.

Bose, G. (1997). Termite fauna of North Eastern India.Occasional Paper zoological Survey of India 171: 1-148. 

Bose, G & B.C. Das (1982).Termite fauna of Orissa, eastern India. Records of the zoological Survey of India 80(1-2): 197-213.

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Bugnion, E. (1914). Eutermes kotuae nov. sp. De Ceylon. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique Suisse 12: 193-200.

Bugnion, E. (1914a). L’imago de L’Eutermes lacustris de Ceylon. Spolia Zeylanica 9(35): 155-162.

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Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1963).Revision of the termite genus Hypotermes Holmgren.(Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) from the Indo-Malayan Region. Indian Forest Records, Entomology 10(9): 171-203.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1964). A new species of Angulitermes from North India (Isoptera: Termitidae: Termitinae). Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 61(2): 348-353.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1964a).Contributions to the knowledge of the systematic of Himalayan (North-western) termite fauna-II. Description of Microcerotermes rambanensis sp. Nov. (Isoptera: Termitidae: Amitermitinae) from Kashmir. Bulletion of Entomology 5: 1-6.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1964b). Revesion of the termite genus Microtermes Wasmann (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae). Indian Forest Records (New Series) Entomology 10(11): 219-260.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1965). Doonitermes capillosus .sp. nov. from Doon Valley (Uttar Pradesh, India) (Isoptera: Termitidae: Amitermitinae). Science and Culture 31(2): 646-649.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1966).Biology and ecology of Oriental termites and biology of some termites of the Doon Valley. Indian Forester 92(2): 139-142.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1966a).Description of the hitherto unknown imago caste of Euhamitermes lighti Snyder with description of other castes. Indian Forest Bulletin (New Series) Entomology 256: 1-11.

Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1966b). Doonitermes capillosus gen. et sp. nov. from Doon Valley (Uttar Pradesh, India) (Isoptera: Termitidae: Amitermitinae). Zoologischer Anzeiger 176(5): 349-357.

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Chatterjee, P.N. & M.L. Thakur (1968).On a collection of termites from Daman. Indian Forester 94(7): 560-567. 

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Chhotani, O.B. (1971). The imago of the termite Nasutitermes indicola (Isoptera: Termitidae), and nesting habit of the species. Records of the zoological Survey of India 63(1-4): 223-229. 

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Kumar, S. & R.K. Thakur (2011).Pericapritermes vermai, a new species from India (Oriental Region) (Isoptera: Termitidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology 14(1): 345-348.

Kumar, S. (2011a). An addition to the Thar Desert Termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Indian Forester 137(3): 387-390.

Kumar, S. & R.K. Thakur (2012).Termite in the office and residential buildings in new Forest Campus, Dehradun.Journal of Experimental Zoology15(2): 579-582.

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Mahapatro, G.K. & S. Kumar (2013). Termites of Delhi: diversity and pest status. Indian Forester 139 (12): 1151-1153.

Mahapatro, G.K. & S. Kumar (2013).First report of a commonly prevalent termite Heterotermes indicola from Delhi region. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 83(4): 459–462.

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Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1964).Termite fauna of Rajasthan, India. Zoologia 40(3): 6-58. 

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1965).Zoogeography of Andaman and Nicobar termites.Bulletin of Systematic Zoology 1(1): 3-4. 

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1969).Fauna of Rajasthan, India.Part 4. A check-list of Rajasthan termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Records zoological Survey of India 61(3-4): 437-450.

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1970).Taxonomy and zoogeography of the termite fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indian Ocean. Records of the zoological Survey of India 62(3-4): 109-170. 

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1978).Vagitational distribution of termites of Rajasthan (India) and their economic importance.Proceeding Indian national Science Academy (B) 44(5): 320-329.

Roonwal, M.L. & G. Bose (1988).The harvester termite (Anacanthotermes) of the Indian Region. Identity, distribution and biology (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae). Occasional Paper Records of zoological Survey of India 111: 1-61.

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1960).The apical tibial spur formula in the termite genus Coptotermes. Journal of the zoological Society of India 11(2): 125-132. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1960a). Soldier caste found in the termite genus Speculitermes. Science and Culture 26(3): 143-144. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1962).Termite fauna of Assam, Eastern India. Proceeding of the Indian National Science Academy (B) 28(4): 281-406. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1965). Two new species of Euhamitermes Holmgren (Insecta: Isoptera: Termitidae) from India. Proceeding zoological Society Calcutta 18(1): 11-19.

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1966). Revision of termite genus Eurytermes (Termitidae: Amitermitinae). Proceeding of the Indian National Science Academy (B) 31(3-4): 81-113. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1971). Two new termites of genus Angultermes Sjostedt (Isoptera: Termitidae) from India, with a key to species of Indian Region. Records of the zoological Survey of India 63(1-4): 209-222.

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1977).Ergebnisse der Bhutan-Expedition 1972 des Naturhistorischen Museums Basel.Isoptera (termites). Entomologica Basiliensia 2: 39-84. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1986).The identity of South Asian termites Indotermes rongrensis (R. and C.) (Synonyms Speculitermes Cyclops rongrensis and I. bangladeshiensis) (Isoptera, Indotermitidae). Records of the zoological Survey of India 83(3-4): 155-163. 

Roonwal, M.L. & O.B. Chhotani (1989).The Fauna of India and the adjacent countries, Isoptera (Termites).Zoological  Survey of India, Kolkata, viii+672pp.

Roonwal, M.L. & P.K. Sen-Sarma (1960).Contribution to the systematic of Oriental termites.Indian Council of Agriculture Research, New Delhi, 407pp. 

Roonwal, M.L. & P.K. Sen-Sarma (1973).First record of termite genus Incisitermes Krishna (Kalotermitidae) from Indian Region, with description of a new species from Rajasthan.Zoologischer Anzeiger 191(5-6): 390-397.

Roonwal, M.L. &S.C. Verma (1973).Broad-postmentum latigula –group species of termite genus Odontotermes (Termitidae), from the Orient with a new Indian species.Journal of Indian Academy of Wood Science 4(2): 88-91.

Roonwal, M.L. &S.C. Verma (1976).  Resurvey of the termite fauna of Rajasthan, India, and its Zoogeography. Records zoological Survey of India 72: 425-480.

Roonwal, M.L. &S.C. Verma (1977).A new species of Angulitermes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Termitinae) from the Indian Desert, with some observations on its biology.Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 112: 5-12. 

Roonwal, M.L. &S.C. Verma (1977a). Resurvey of the termite fauna of Rajasthan, India, and its Zoogeography. Records of the zoological Survey of India 72: 425-480. 

Roonwal, M.L. & S.C. Verma (1991). The South Asian wood destroying termite, Odontotermes feae. Identity, biology and economic importance (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae). Occasional Paper Records of zoological Survey of India 129: 1-33.

Singla M., V.L. Sharma, R.C. Sobti, M. Sodhi& M. Kumari (2013). Genetic Relationship Among Indian Termites Based on DNA Sequence of Mitochondrial 12S Ribosomal RNA Gene. International Journal of Evolution 2(1):1-5.

Sobti R.C., M. Kumari, V.L. Sharma, M. Sodhi, M. Mukesh& Y. Shouche (2009). Sequence analysis of a few species of termites (order: Isoptera) on the basis of partial characterization of COII gene. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 331(1–2): 145-151

Sen-Sarma, P.K. (1965). A new termite genus and species from south India (Insecta: Isoptera: Termitidae). Proceedings zoological Society Calcutta 18: 143-148.

Sen-Sarma, P.K. (1966). Three new genera of Grallatotermes complex (Isoptera: Termitidae: Nasutitemitinae). Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 63(1): 167-184.

 

Sen-Sarma, P.K. & M.L. Thakur (1979). Termites of Tripura (Insecta: Isoptera). Indian Forest Records (New Series) Entomology 13(1): 1-67.

Thakur, R.K. (1989). Termite fauna (Insecta: Isoptera) of Gujarat, India. Indian Forest Records (New Series) Entomology 15(1): 1-76. 

Thakur, R.K. (1990). Termites (Isoptera) from Karnataka (South India), with new records. Indian Journal of Forestry 13(1): 53-56.

Thakur, R.K. (1991). First record of Hypotermes xenotermitis Wasmann.(Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) from South India.Indian Journal of Forestry 14(4): 318-319.

Thakur, R.K. (1992). Termites from arid areas of Punjab and Haryana, India.Records zoological Survey of India 91(2): 127-137.

Thakur, R.K. (1994). On a collection of termites from arid areas of Punjab and Haryana.Records of the zoological Survey of India 91: 125-127. 

Thakur, R.K. (2007). Termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Haryana with new distributional records. Indian Forester 133(11): 1504-1512.

Thakur, R.K. (2007a). Termites from Delhi (Insecta: Isoptera), with new distributional records. Indian Journal of Forestry 30(4): 505-508.

Thakur, R.K. (2008). Angulitermes bhagsunagensis, a new species from India (Oriental region) (Isoptera: Termitidae: Termitinae). Indian Journal of Forestry 31(4): 581-584.

Thakur, R.K. (2009). Studies on the termite fauna of Northern India (Insecta: Isoptera). Final Technical Report.Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India, 120pp.

Thakur, R.K. (2009a). Termite Research in Forestry in India: Past and Present. ENVIS, Forestry Bulletin 9(1): 19-32.

Thakur R.K. (2010). Studies on the termites of family Termitidae (Insecta: Isoptera), with special emphasis on their taxonomic status, identity and distribution. Final Technical Report, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehradun, India, 266pp

Thakur, R.K. & N.S. Rathore (1986). A new termite Odontotermes sikkimensis (Isoptera: Termitidae: Microtermitinae) from Sikkim, India. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 17(1): 53-56. 

Thakur, R.K. & S. Kumar (2012).Termite diversity in North Western Himalayan region with new distributional records.Journal of Experimental Zoology15(2): 365-373.

ThakurR.K., S. Kumar& V. Tyagi(2009). Termite fauna of Kumaon, Uttarakhand, (Insecta: Isoptera). Indian Journal of Forestry32(4): 595-600.

Thakur, R.K., V.Tyagi &S. Kumar (2010). Termites from Garhwal Uttarakhand, (Insecta: Isoptera), with new distributional records. Indian Forester, 136(5): 621-634.

Thakur, R.K., V.Tyagi &S. Kumar (2010a).Glyptotermes roonwali, (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). A new species from India.Entomon 35(2): 111-119.

Thakur, R.K., V.Tyagi &S. Kumar (2010b).Neotermes sen-sarmai, A new species from India (Oriental Region) (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae). Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology 31(1): 101-105.

Thakur, R.K., S.Kumar & V.Tyagi (2011).Macrotermes vikaspurensis: A new species from India. Journal of Experimental Zoology14(2): 667-672.

Verma, S.C. (1980). Termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Cheetal 21(2-3): 45-56. 

Verma, S.C. (1983). A new species of the termite genus Pericapritermes Silvestri (Termitidae: Termitinae) from Kerala, India with distribution and keys to Oriental species of the genus. Indian Journal of Forestry 6(4): 296-301.

Verma, S.C. (1984a). On a collection of termites (Isoptera: Insecta) from Nagaland, Northeast India. Indian Journal of Forestry 7(1): 81-82. 

Verma, S.C. (1984a). Termites from Jammu and Kashmir State (India), with new records, key and remarks on zoogeography. Indian Journal of Forestry 7(4): 305-314. 

Verma, S.C. (1984b). On a collection of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Kerala (India) with a new species of and keys to the Indian species of Angulitermes Sjostedt. Records zoological Survey of India 81(3-4): 237-254.

Verma, S.C. (1985). On a collection of termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Kerala, India with a new species of Pseudocapritermes Kemner (Part II). Indian Journal of Forestry 8(3): 176-183.

Verma, S.C. (1985a). Microcerotermes pakistanicus Akhtar (Termitidae: Amitermitinae) from Kerala, India, with descriptions of hitherto unknown imago and worker caste. Annals of Entomology 3(1): 53-58.

Verma, S.C. (1986). A new species of termite genus Dicuspiditermes Krishna (Termitidae: Termitinae) from Kerala, India with distribution of the known species of the genus. Annals of Entomology 3(2): 7-12.

Verma, S.C. (1989). Termites from Uttar Pradesh Tarai region (India) with a key for identification of species. Indian Journal of Forestry 12(4): 296-301. 

Verma, S.C. & G.L. Purohit (1996).  Additions to the termite (Insecta: Isoptera) fauna of Rajasthan, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 19(3): 237-240.

Verma, S.C. & N. S. Rathore (1995). Termite (Insecta: Isoptera) of Thar Desert. A review.including catalogue of species and keys to soldier caste. Zoology 5(1): 21-34.

Verma, S.C. & R.K. Thakur (1976). New records of termite Odontotermes gurdaspurensis Holmgren and Holmgren (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 7(1): 36 - 37. 

Verma, S.C. & R.K. Thakur (1978). A new species of Nasutitermes Banks (Isoptera: Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae) from Corbett National Park, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 9(1): 50-55. 

Verma, S.C. & R.K. Thakur (1979). Colony foundation by budding in Euhamitermes lighti Snyder (Isoptera: Termitidae: Amitermitinae). Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science 10(2): 88-89. 

Verma, S.C. & R.K. Thakur (1982).Termites from Madhya Pradesh, India, with new distributional records. Records of the zoological Survey of India 79(3-4): 311-318. 

Walker, F. (1853).List of the specimens of Neuropterous insects in the collection of the British Mesuem (Termitidae-Ephermeridae).London, British Museum of Natural History.477-585pp. 

Wasmann, E. (1893). Einige neue Termiten aus Ceylon und Madagaskar, mit Bemerkugen uber deren Gaste. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 12(7): 239-247. 

Wasmann, E. (1894). Kritisches Verzeichnis der myrmekophilen und termitophilen Arthropoden. Mit Angabe der Lebensweise und mit Beschreibung neuer Arten, xvi+231pp.

Wasmann, E. (1896). Die Myrmekophilen und Termitophilen, pp. 410-440. In:  Hoek, P.P.C.  (ed.) Société Néeriandaise de Zoologie. Leyden.

Wasmann, E. (1896a). Neue Termitophilen und Termiten aus Indien.I-III.(Viaggo di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regione vicine. LXXII). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 36(16): 613-630. 

 Wasmann, E. (1896b). Neue Termitophilen und Termiten aus Indien. IV (Nachtrag). (Viaggo di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regione vicine. LXXII). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 17(17): 149-152.

Wasmann, E. (1902). Termitophilen and Myrmekophilen, gesamelt auf Ceylon von Dr. W. Horn, 1899, mit andern ostindischen Material bearbeitet. 129. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Myrmekophilen und der Termitophilen. Zoologische Jahrbuecher Systematik 17(1): 99-164.

 

Termite Family

Total Number of species

Family I: TERMOPSIDAE Grasse

Archotermopsis Desneux

 

Archotermopsis wroughtoni (Desneux)

1

Family II: HODOTERMITIDAE Desneux

Sub-family: HODOTERMITINAE Desneux

Anacanthotermes Jacobson

 

Anacanthotermes macrocephalus  (Desneux)

Anacanthotermes viarum (Konig)

2

Family III: KALOTERMITIDAE Froggatt

Postelectrotermes Krishna

3

Postelectrotermes bhimi Roonwal and Maiti

Postelectrotermes militaris (Desneux)

Postelectrotermes nayari Roonwal and Verma

 

Neotermes Holmgren

 

Neotermes assmuthi Holmgren

 

Neotermes bosei Snyder

 

Neotermes buxensis Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Neotermes dhirendrai Bose

 

Neotermes eleanorae Bose

 

Neotermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Neotermes kalimpomgensis Maiti

 

Neotermes keralai Roonwal and Verma

 

Neotermes krishnai Bose

 

Neotermes mangiferae Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Neotermes megaoculatus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

a.  Neotermes megaoculatus megaoculatus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

b. Neotermes megaoculatus lakhimpuri Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Neotermes microculatus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Neotermes nilamburensis Thakur

 

Neotermes paratensis Sen-Sarma and Thakur

 

Neotermes sen-sarmai Thakur, Tyagi and Kumar

 

Neotermes shimogensis Thakur

 

Neotermes venkateshwara Bose

18

Glyptotermes Froggatt

 

Glyptotermes almorensis Gardner

 

Glyptotermes coorgensis Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Glyptotermes nicobarensis Maiti and Chakraborty

 

Glyptotermes roonwali Thakur, Tyagi and Kumar

 

Glyptotermes sensarmai Maiti

 

Glyptotermes teknafensis Akhtar

 

Glyptotermes tikaderi Chhotani and Bose

 

Glyptotennes tripurensis Thakur

 

Glyptotennes ukhiaensis Akhtar

9

Calcaritennes Snyder

 

Calcaritermes krishnai (Maiti and Chakraborty)

1

Incisitennes Krishna

 

Incisitermes didwanaensis Roonwal and Verma

1

Bifiditermes Krishna

 

Bifiditermes beesoni (Gardner)

 

Bifiditermes pintoi (Kemner)

2

Procryptotermes Holmgren

 

Procryptotermes dhari Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Procryptotermes hunsurensis Thakur

 

Procryptotermes valeriae Bose

3

Cryptotermes Banks

 

Cryptotermes bengalensis Snyder

 

Cryptotermes daulti Rathore

 

Cryptotermes domesticus (Haviland)

 

Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks

 

Cryptotermes roonwali Chhotani

4

FAMILY IV: RHINOTERMITIDAE Froggatt

Subfamily: PSAMMOTERMITINAE Holmgren

Psammotermes Desneux

 

Psammotermes rajasthanicus Roonwal and Base

1

Subfamily: COPTOTERMITINAE Holmgren

Coptotermes Wasmann

 

Coptotermes beckeri Mathur and Chhotani

 

Coptotermes ceylonicus Holmgren

 

Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann

 

Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann)

 

Coptotermes kishori Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Coptotermes travians Haviland

6

Subfamily: HETEROTERMITINA Froggatt

Heterotermes Froggatt

 

Heterotermes balwanti Mathur and Chhotani

 

Heterotermes gertrudae Roonwal

 

Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann)

 

Heterotermes malabaricus Snyder

4

Reticulitermes Holmgren

 

Reticulitermes assamensis Gardner

 

Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder

 

Reticulitermes saraswati Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Reticulitermes tirapi Chhotani and Das

4

Subfamily: RHINOTERMITINAE  Froggatt

Prorhinotermes Silvestri

 

Prorhinotermes flavus (Bugnion and Popoff)

1

Parrhinotermes Holmgren

 

Parrhinotermes khasii RoonwaI and Sen-Sarma

1

Schedorhinotermes Silvestri

 

Schedorhinotermes eleanorae Roonwal and Bose

 

Schedorhinotermes longirostris (Brauer)

 

Schedorhinotermes medioobscurus Holmgren

 

Schedorhinotermes tiwarii Roonwal and Thakur

 

Schedorhinotermes translucens (Haviland)

5

Family V:  STYLOTERMITIDAE Holmgren and Holmgren

Stylotermes Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Stylotermes beesoni Thakur

 

Stylotermes bengalensis Mathur and Chhotani

 

Stylotermes chakratensis Mathur and Thapa

 

Stylotermes dunensis Thakur

 

Stylotermes faveolus (Chatterjee and Thakur)

 

Stylotermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Stylotermes parabengalensis Maiti

7

Family VI:  INDOTERMITIDAE Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

Indotermes Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Indotermes rongrensis (Roonwal and Chhotani)

1

Family VII:  TERMITIDAE Westwood

Subfamily: AMITERMITINAE Kemner

Eurytermes Wasmann

 

Eurytermes assmuthi assmuthi Wasmann

 

Eurytermes assmuthi modestior Silvestri

 

Eurytermes boveni Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Eurytermes buddha Bose and Maiti

 

Eurytermes mohana Rathore

 

Eurytermes punjabensis Thakur                         

 

Eurytermes topslipensis (Chatterjee and Thapa)

7

Speculitermes Wasmann

 

Speculitermes chadaensis Chatterjee and Thapa

 

Speculitermes cyclops Wasmann

 

Speculitermes deccanensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Speculitermes dharwarensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Speculitermes emersoni Bose

 

Speculitermes goesswaldi Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Speculitermes paivai Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Speculitermes roonwali Maiti

 

Speculitermes sinhalensis Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Speculitermes triangularis Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

10

Euhamitermes Holmgren

 

Euhamitermes aruna Chhotani

 

Euhamitermes chhotanii Maiti

 

Euhamitermes dentatus Thakur and Chatterjee

 

Euhamitehmes indicus Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Euhamitermes khanhaensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Euhamitehmes karnatakensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Euhamitermes lighti Snyder

7

Synhamitermes Holmgren

 

Synhamitermes labioangulatus Thakur

 

Synhamitermes quadriceps Wasmann

2

Amitermes Silvestri

 

Amitermes belli (Desneux)

1

Eremotermes Silvestri

 

Eremotermes dehraduni Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Eremotermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Eremotermes madrasicus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Eremotermes neoparadoxalis Ahmad

 

Eremotermes paradoxalis Holmgren

 

Eremotermes sanyuktae Thakur

6

Microcerotermes Silvestri

 

Microcerotermes annandalei Silvestri

 

Microcerotermes s baluchistanicus Ahmad

 

Microcerotermes beesoni Snyder

 

Microcerotermes cameroni Snyder

 

Microcerotermes crassus Snyder

 

Microcerotermes danieli Roonwal and Bose

 

Microcerotermes dumasensis Thakur

 

Microcerotermes fletcheri Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Microcerotermes ganeshi Bose

 

Microcerotermes heimi Wasmann

 

Microcerotermes kudermukhae Chhotani

 

Microcerotermes labioangulatus Sen-Sarma and Thakur

 

Microcerotermes laxmi Roonwal and Bose

 

Microcerotermes minor Holmgren

 

Microcerotermes nicobarernsis Roonwal and Bose

 

Microcerotermes pakistanicus Akhtar

 

Microcerotermes palestinensis Spaeth

 

Microcerotermes raja Roonwal and Bose

 

Microcerotermes rambanensis Chatterjee and Thakur

 

Microcerotermes tenuignathus Holmgren

20

Subfamily: TERMITINAE Sjostedt

Angulitermes Sjostedt

 

Angulitermes acutus Mathur and Sen-Sarma

 

Angulitermes akhorisainensis Chatterjee and Thakur

 

Angulitermes bhagsunagensis Thakur

 

Anguliterrnes dehraensis (Gardner)

 

Angulitermes fletcheri (Holmgren and Holmgren)

 

Angulitermes jodhpurensis Roonwal and Verma

 

Angulitermes kashmirensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Angulitermes keralai Verma

 

Angulitermes longifrons Maiti

 

Angulitermes mishrai Sen-Sarma and Thakur

 

Angulitermes obtusus(Holmgrenand Holrngren)

 

Angulitermes ramanii Bose and Das

 

Angulitermes rathorai Kumar and Thakur

 

Angulitermes tilaki Roonwal and Chhotani

14

Homallotermes John

 

Homallotermes pilosus (Mathur and Thapa)

1

Dicuspiditermes Krishna

 

Dicuspiditermes achankovili Verma

 

Dicuspiditermes boseae Chhotani

 

Dicuspiditermes cornutella (Silvestri)

 

Dicuspiditermes fontanellus Thakur and Chatterjee

 

Dicuspiditermes gravelyi (Silvestri)

 

Dicuspiditermes incola (Wasmann)

 

Dicuspiditermes laetus (Silvestri)

 

Dicuspiditermes obtusus (Silvestri)

 

Dicuspiditermes sisiri Chhotani

9

Pericapritermes Silvestri

 

Pericapritermes assameneis (Mathur and Thapa)

 

Pericapritermes chhichruliensis Thakur

 

Pericapritermes dunensis (Roonwal and Sen-Sarma)

 

Pericapritermes durga (Roonwal and Chhotani)

 

Pericapritermes tetraphilus (Silvestri)

 

Pericapritermes topslipensis Thakur

 

Pericapritermes vermai Kumar and Thakur

7

Indocapritermes Chhotani

 

Indocapritermes aruni Chhotani

1

Krishnacapritermes Chhotani

 

Krishnacapritermes maitii  Chhotani

 

Krishnacapritermes thakuri Chhotani

2

Labiocapritermes Krishna

 

Labiocapritermes distortus (Silvestri)

1

Malaysiocapritermes Ahmad and Akhtar

 

Malaysiocapritermes dakshinae Chhotani and Ferry

 

Malaysiocapritermes holmgreni (Akhtar)

 

Malaysiocapritermes keralae Chhotani and Ferry

3

Pseudocapritermes Kemner

 

Pseudocapritermes fletcheri (Holmgren and Holmgren)

 

Pseudocapritermes karticki Bose

 

Pseudocapritermes tikadari Roonwal and Chhotani

3

Subfamily: MACROTERMITINAE Kemner

Macrotermes Holmgren

 

Macrotermes aleemi Akhtar

 

Macrotermes convulsionarius (Konig)

 

Macrotermes hopini Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Macrotermes khajuriai Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Macrotermes serrulatus Snyder

 

Macrotermes vikaspurensis Thakur, Kumar and Tyagi

6

Odontotermes Holmgren

 

Odontotermes adampurensis Akhtar

 

Odontotermes anamallensis Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Odontotermes assmuthi Holmgren

 

Odontotermes bellahunisensis Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Odontotermes bhagwatii Chatterjee and Thakur

 

Odontotermes boveni Thakur

 

Odontotermes brunneus (Hagen)

 

Odontotermes ceylonicus (Wasmann)

 

Odontotermes distans Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Odontotermes feae (Wasmann)

 

Odontotermes feaeoides Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Odontotermes ganpati Bose

 

Odontotermes giriensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Odontotermes girnarensisThakur

 

Odontotermes globicola (Wasmann)

 

Odontotermes guptai Roonwal and Bose

 

Odontotermes gurdaspurensis Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Odontotermes horai Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Odontotermes horni (Wasrnann)

 

Odontotermes indicus Thakur

 

Odontotermes kapuri Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Odontotermes kulkarnii Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Odontotermes latigula (Snyder)

 

Odontotermes latiguloides Roonwal and Verma

 

Odontotermes microdentatus Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Odontotermes mirganjensis Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Odontotermes obesus (Rambur)

 

Odontotermes paralatigula Chatterjee and Sen-Sarma

 

Odontotermes paralatiguloides Thakur

 

Odontotermes parvidens Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Odontotennes proformosanus Ahmad

 

Odontotermes prolatigula Bose

 

Odontotermes redemanni (Wasmann)

 

Odontotermes sasangirensis Thakur

 

Odontotermes singsiti Bose

 

Odontotermes vaishno Bose

 

Odontotermes wallonensis (Wasmann)

 

Odontotermes yadevi Thakur

38

Hypotermes Holmgren

 

Hypotermes obscuriceps (Wasmann)

 

Hypotermes xenotermitis (Wasmann)

2

Euscaiotermes Silvestri

 

Euscaiotermes primus Silvestri

1

Microtermes Wasmann

 

Microtermes bharatpurensis Rathore

 

Microtermes imphalensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Microtermes incertoides Holmgren

 

Microtermes mycophagus Desneux

 

Microtermes obesi Holmgren

 

Microtermes unicolor Snyder

6

Ancistrotermes Silvestri

 

Ancistrotermes pakistanicus (Ahmad)

1

Subfamily: NASUTITERMITINAE Hare

Nasutitermes Dudley

 

Nasutitermes anamalaiensis Snyder

 

Nasutitermes brunneus Snyder

 

Nasutitermes cherraensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Nasutitermes chhotanii Bose

 

Nasutitermes crassicornis (Holmgren and Holmgren)

 

Nasutitermes dunensis Chatterjee and Thakur

 

Nasutitermes emersoni Snyder

 

Nasutitermes fabricii Krishna

 

Nasutitermes fletcheri (Holmgren and Holmgren)

 

Nasutitermes gardneri Snyder

 

Nasutitermes garoensis Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Nasutitermes indicola(Holmgren and Holmgren)

 

Nasutitermes jalpaigurensis Prashad and Sen-Sarma

 

Nasutitermes kali Roonwal and Chhotani

 

Nasutitermes krishna Bose

 

Nasutitermes matangensiformis (Holmgren)

 

Nasutitermes moratus (Silvestri)

 

Nasutitermes saharanpurensis  Thakur

 

Nasutitermes suknensis Prashad and Sen-Sarma

 

Nasutitermes tandoni Bose

 

Nasutitermes thanensis Prashad and Sen-Sarma

 

Nasutitermes triloki Bose

 

Nasutitermes vishnu Bose

23

Bulbitermes Emerson

 

Bulbitermes parapusillus Ahmad

1

Ahmaditermes Akhtar

 

Ahmaditermes emersoni (Maiti)

1

Ceylonitermes Holmgren

 

Ceylonitermes indicola Thakur

1

Ampoulitermes Mathur and Thapa

 

Ampoulitermes wynaadensis Mathur and Thapa

1

Hospitalitermes Holmgren

 

Hospitalitermes blairi Roonwal and Sen-Sarma

 

Hospitalitermes jepsoni Snyder

 

Hospitalitermes madrasi Snyder

3

Trinervitermes Holmgren

 

Trinervitermes biformis (Wasmann)

 

Trinervitermes fletcheri Chatterjee and Thakur

 

Trinervitermes indicus Snyder

 

Trineruitermes nigrirostris Mathur and Sen-Sarma

 

Trineruitermes sensarmai Bose

5

Roonwalitermes Bose

 

Roonwalitermes wadhwai Bose

1

Grallatotermes Holmgren

 

Grallatotermes grallatoriformis Holmgren and Holmgren

 

Grallatotermes niger Chatterjee and Thapa

2

Emersonitermes Mathur and Sen-Sarma

 

Emersonitermes thekadensis Mathur and Sen-Sarma

1

Total termite species

261

Summary:

 

  • Termopsidae: One genus and one species
  • Hodotermitidae: One genus and two species
  • Kalotermitidae: Eight genera and forty species
  • Rhinotermitidae: Seven genera and twenty two species
  • Stylotermitidae: One genus and seven species
  • Indotermitidae: One genus and one species
  • Termitidae: Thirty two genera and one hundred and eighty eight species


Last Updated: 04-01-2020

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